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How to choose the right mix of investments

Whether you already invest or are just starting out, you may wonder how to find the right choices from so many possibilities. Start by considering your goals, risk tolerance and time horizon. Knowing what you want to achieve makes it easier to find the right mix—or asset allocation—to help you get there.

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What are your goals?

Let’s say you want to start a business, help your child pay for college later on, and are also planning for your retirement. To help pursue these important goals, you may invest in different accounts.

Types of accounts

General investing
You invest in a taxable account on your own or with advice. The money in these accounts can be used for anything you want.

Invest after-tax money in a 529 account. You don’t pay federal taxes on gains if they are used for qualified education expenses.1

You may get tax breaks on contributions or gains in certain accounts, such as a 401(k) or IRA, if you keep them in there long enough, usually until at least age 59 1/2.

Your investment choices

Now, consider the types of investments you have to work with. Some may offer potential for greater returns over time but with a greater risk of loss. Others are less risky but may give you more modest returns. A diverse mix is designed to help protect you from periods of volatility when markets move sharply up or down.




Finding your mix

With a clear idea of your goals and investment choices, you’re ready to start thinking about asset allocation. For each goal, consider these questions:

What is my time horizon?
I might need it tomorrow.
I won’t touch it for decades.


I don’t want to lose a penny.
I’m willing to take on risk for potential rewards.

How do I feel about taking risks?

The answers can help guide your allocations toward specific goals.

Possible allocations*



Down payment on a home in seven years

Risk profile:**
You don’t want to lose much.


Your five-year-old’s college education

Risk profile:
You can handle some market fluctuations.


A comfortable retirement decades from now

Risk profile:
You can withstand big market drops.

* These are intended only as samples. Your choices may differ.
** Risk profile is a measure of your tolerance for market volatility and your ability to absorb fluctuations in your investments’ value.

Source: Bank of America Corporation Global Wealth & Investment Management Chief Investment Office, August 2018

Rebalance regularly

Over time, market ups and downs can throw your original asset allocation out of whack. Your original 60% of stocks could become 80% or 40%, and your personal goals may change as well. Schedule a time, say every year, or as needed, to review your investments and adjust each account, if necessary.

Your investments are an important part of your financial strategy, which should also include day-to-day budgeting and saving for short-term goals. Many tools can help you with your financial decisions. Or you could get personalized assistance from a financial advisor. With a little effort, you could have an investment mix that’s tailored for the life you have—and designed for the one you want.

  1. To be eligible for favorable tax treatment afforded to any earnings portion of withdrawals from Section 529 accounts, such withdrawals must be used for “qualified higher education expenses,” as defined in the Internal Revenue Code. Any earnings withdrawn that are not used for such expenses are subject to federal income tax and may be subject to a 10% additional federal tax as well as state and local income taxes.
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The material provided on this website is for informational use only and is not intended for financial, tax or investment advice. Bank of America and/or its affiliates, and Khan Academy, assume no liability for any loss or damage resulting from one’s reliance on the material provided. Please also note that such material is not updated regularly and that some of the information may not therefore be current. Consult with your own financial professional and tax advisor when making decisions regarding your financial situation.

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For a current prospectus of money market or mutual funds, be sure to request a prospectus and/or a summary prospectus from your broker or from the fund company and read it carefully. Before investing, carefully consider the investment objectives, risks, and charges and expenses of the fund. This and other information may be found in the fund’s prospectus and/or, if available, summary prospectus. Read the prospectus carefully before investing. Investments in the funds are not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit insurance Corporation or any other government agency. Although money market funds seek to preserve the value of your investment at $1 per share, it is possible to lose money by investing in the funds.

Investing involves risk including loss of principal.

This material does not take into account your particular investment objectives, financial situations or needs and is not intended as a recommendation, offer or solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security, financial instrument or strategy.

Before acting on any information in this material, you should consider whether it is suitable for your particular circumstances and, if necessary, seek professional advice. Any opinions expressed herein are given in good faith, are subject to change without notice, and are only correct as of the stated date of their issue.

Asset allocation, diversification and rebalancing do not ensure a profit or protect against loss in declining markets.

Certain stocks can pose systematic market risk, including possible illiquidity and greater volatility than others. Some stocks move independently of the market, as a whole where risks can potentially be minimized through diversification. Dividends may not be guaranteed.

Investing in fixed-income securities may involve certain risks, including the credit quality of individual issuers, possible prepayments, market or economic developments and yields and share price fluctuations due to changes in interest rates. When interest rates go up, bond prices typically drop, and vice versa.

Income from investing in municipal bonds is generally exempt from Federal and state taxes for residents of the issuing state. While the interest income is tax-exempt, any capital gains distributed are taxable to the investor. Income for some investors may be subject to the Federal Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT). Investments in high-yield bonds (sometimes referred to as “junk bonds”) offer the potential for high current income and attractive total return, but involves certain risks.

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