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How to calculate your home equity

If you’re a homeowner, it is important to understand your home equity and how to calculate it. Home equity is the difference between the appraised value of your home and the amount you still owe on your mortgage. Increasing your equity can help improve your finances; it affects everything from whether you need to pay private mortgage insurance to what financing options may be available to you.

How much equity do I have?

You can figure out how much equity you have in your home by subtracting the amount you owe on all loans secured by your house from its appraised value. For example, homeowner Caroline owes $140,000 on a mortgage for her home, which was recently appraised at $400,000. Her home equity is $260,000.

Current appraised value


Mortgage balance


Home equity


However, if Caroline’s home was appraised at a value lower than what she owes on her mortgage, she would not have any equity in her home and would owe more than the home is worth.

Calculating your loan-to-value ratio

Lenders may use other calculations related to equity when making decisions about loans. One common measure used is loan-to-value ratio (LTV). When you first apply for a mortgage, this equation compares the amount of the loan you’re seeking to the home’s value. If you currently have a mortgage, your LTV ratio is based on your loan balance. LTV ratio can affect whether you pay private mortgage insurance or if you might qualify to refinance.

To figure out your LTV ratio, divide your current loan balance—you can find this number on your monthly statement or online account—by your home’s appraised value. Multiply that number by 100 to convert it to a percentage. Caroline’s loan-to-value ratio is 35 percent.

Current loan balance


Current appraised value


Answer x 100




Tip: Getting a professional home appraisal is an essential part of determining your loan-to-value ratio. If an on-site appraisal is needed, your lender will arrange for a qualified appraiser to come to your home and assess its value. While a home appraisal is the most accurate way of determining what your home is worth, there may be free online tools that can also help you understand your home’s estimated value.

Equity and private mortgage insurance

If you pay private mortgage insurance (PMI) on your original mortgage, keep track of your loan-to-value ratio. The Homeowners Protection Act requires lenders to automatically cancel PMI when a home’s LTV ratio is 78 percent or lower (provided certain requirements are met). This cancellation is often preplanned for when your loan balance reaches 78 percent of your home’s original appraised value. However, if your LTV ratio drops below 80 percent ahead of schedule due to extra payments you made, you have the right to request your lender cancel your PMI.

Applying for a home equity line of credit

If you are considering a home equity loan or line of credit, another important calculation is your combined loan-to-value ratio (CLTV). Your CLTV ratio compares the value of your home to the combined total of the loans secured by it, including the loan or line of credit you’re seeking. Say Caroline wants to apply for a $75,000 home equity line of credit and currently has a loan balance of $140,000. She calculates what her CLTV ratio would be if she were approved for it:

Calculating combined loan-to-value ratio

Current loan balance + Home equity line of credit


Current appraised value


Answer x 100




Most lenders require your CLTV ratio to be below 85 percent (though that number may be lower or vary from lender to lender) to qualify for a home equity line of credit, so Caroline would likely be eligible. However, it’s important to remember that your home’s value can fluctuate over time. If the value drops, you may not be eligible for a home equity loan or line of credit, or you may end up owing more than your home is worth.

How to increase your equity

If your home’s value decreases over time, your equity may decrease, too. But, if it remains stable, you can build equity by paying down your loan’s principal and lowering your loan-to-value ratio. If your payments are amortized (that is, based on a schedule by which you’d repay your loan in full by the end of its term), this happens simply by making your monthly payments.

If you hope to lower your LTV ratio more quickly, consider paying more than your required mortgage payment each month. This helps you chip away at your loan balance. (Check to make sure your loan doesn’t carry any prepayment penalties.)

Also, protect the value of your home by keeping it neat and well-maintained. You may also be able to increase your home’s value by making improvements to it. However, it’s a good idea to consult an appraiser or real estate professional before investing in any renovations you hope will increase your home’s value. Remember that economic conditions can affect your home’s value no matter what you do. If home prices increase, your LTV ratio could drop and your home equity could increase, while falling home prices could cancel out the value of any improvements you might make.

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The material provided on this website is for informational use only and is not intended for financial, tax or investment advice. Bank of America and/or its affiliates, and Khan Academy, assume no liability for any loss or damage resulting from one’s reliance on the material provided. Please also note that such material is not updated regularly and that some of the information may not therefore be current. Consult with your own financial professional and tax advisor when making decisions regarding your financial situation.

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